Intelligenge Testing & Grouping Definition: Intelligence Testing In reviewing the text, I found the definition of intelligence testing to be very simple; testing used to measure intelligence. Two definitions found on an Internet site at dictionary.com are: (a) A standardized test used to establish an intelligence level rating by measuring a subject’s ability to form concepts, solve problems, acquire information, reason, and perform other intellectual operations. (b) A psychometric test of intelligence; they used to think that intelligence is what an intelligence test tests. In defining intelligence, there has always been the question of whether intelligence is measured as one phenomenon or if it has many variables that are combined. For example, is it how smart a person is? Or is it a mixture of survival, mathematical, social and other abilities. There are many debates regarding weather measuring intelligence is determined from test scores and results or if it is measured by the person ability to process and problem solve. Uses of Intelligence Testing In an educational setting, intelligence and achievement tests are administered routinely to assess individual accomplishment.
They are used to improve instruction and curriculum planning. High schools use these test to assist in the students future educational planning. Elementary schools utilize screening and testing procedures to help determine readiness for reading and writing placement. Intelligence can be measured, though imperfectly, by intelligence tests, among them the Standford-Binat Intelligence and the Wechsler scales. These tests are intended to determine an individual’s intelligence quotient (IQ). Intelligence tests usually provide an estimate of global cognitive functioning as well as information about functioning within more specific domains. Compared to measures of virtually all other human traits, intelligence test scores are quite stable.
However, the degree of stability increases with age such that early childhood and preschool measures of intellectual function are far less predictive of later functioning than assessments taken during middle childhood. Furthermore, despite their relative stability, intelligence test scores may change as a function of important environmental factors. Therefore, intelligence test scores are descriptive of a child’s functioning at that point in time. This could change with alterations in the child’s psychiatric status, environmental conditions, or educational program. Components of a good intelligence test are (a) Validity; does the test really measure intelligence and not something else? (b) Reliability; does the test produce consistent measurements? (c) Norms; are the participants being fairly compared? Components that make an intelligence test flawed are (a) Poor validity; many intelligence tests are sensitive to social factors in addition to intelligence. (b) Poor norms; being compared to people who are different.
(c) Inappropriate application; test measures something that has nothing to do with the participants school or job. Theories of Process Psychometric Model Psychometric approach is defined as psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits. The psychometric model is a theoretical perspective that quantifies individual differences in test scores to establish a rank order of abilities. There are various psychometric approaches to intelligence. The following paragraphs describe three different theorists and their psychometric model.
Charles Spearmans believed that intelligence is a combination of two parts. According to his two-factor theory of intelligence, the performance of any intellectual act requires some combination of g, (general intelligence factor) which is available to the same individual to the same degree for all intellectual acts. (Specific factors) or s is specific to that act and varies in strength from one act to another. S is specific knowledge such as verbal reasoning or spatial problem solving. Spearman equated g with mental energy. If one knows how a person performs on one task that is highly saturated with g, one can safely predict a similar level of performance for another highly g saturated task.
Prediction of performance on tasks with high s factors is less accurate. Thus, the most important information to have about a person’s intellectual ability is an estimate of their g or mental energy (Plucker 1989). Thurstone’s theory is based on seven primary mental abilities. In the area of intelligence, his theory maintains that intelligence is made up of several primary mental abilities rather than just the g and s factors. He was among the first to propose and demonstrate that there are numerous ways in which a person can be intelligent. Thurstone’s Multiple-factors theory identified these seven primary mental abilities: Verbal Comprehension Word Fluency Number Facility Spatial Visualization Associative Memory Perceptual Speed Reasoning Thurstone’s theory has been used to construct intelligence tests that yield a profile of the individual’s performance on each of the ability tests, rather than general that yield a single score such as an IQ. Guilford’s theory includes 150 abilities, arranged in three dimensions: contents, operations, and products. Guilfords three-dimensional Structure of Intellect classified intellectual acts into 120 separate categories.
These categories are operations dimension, products dimension and material or content dimension. He developed firm convictions regarding the ability of individual difference among people. Guilfords believed that intelligence is much too complicated to be subsumed by a few primary mental abilities and g factor. His systematic theory gave rise to what is known as informational-operational psychology. Information-Processing Informational theorists believe that human cognition is best understood as the management of information through a system with limited space or.