.. iation process. Both parties have the responsibility for the best or worse outcome. Negotiators should not blame the other party but to take the responsibility to create a spirit of cooperation. (http://members.nbci.com/ XMCM/cooperate/neg.htm) 7. Being hasty Do not be hasty to button down a days work for low quality solutions.

And do not start giving in to the other party due to the reason of tired or ready to home. Try to call for a break and contemplation will help in such situation to avoid risking anger the other party. (http://www.smartbiz.com/sbs/arts/bly60.htm) 2.7 Influence 2.7.1 People An effective negotiation is about the ability of the negotiator to influence people. Most people are always being influenced instead of influencing others due to the reason that they do not understand how easy it is to influence others. There are several approaches to maximise you influence, they are: 1. Precedent Use of successful past examples to illustrate your idea. This can support your idea and make people believe that your approach works.

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2. Legitimacy Use of documentation such as trade journals, written reports, past success examples to make your idea look legitimate and get peoples belief. 3. Persistence Try to present your ideas in a positive ways of saying YES, BUTK.instead of saying NO. 4. Competition Let people to understand that you have other alternatives even without their assistance.

They will feel less secure and try to be cooperate that your needs can be satisfied elsewhere. 5. Knowledge Demonstrate your knowledge by showing them your qualifications and past successful examples. (http://www.knowledgecenters.versaware.com/notoc/g etpage.asp?book=ManagerToolProb&page=062000139.asp ) 2.7.2 Other Elements 1. Communications Be careful of using a right tone to communicate with you opponents. A right tone and right way of communication can enhance your negotiation process.

2. Your own personalities & style Understand yourself. Negotiation strongly emphasis on understand your opponents but you must understand yourself first before applying with suitable strategy to their personalities. Your opponents will easily affect you emotionally if you do not understand yourself. 3.

Physical space Always select a meeting place, which is comfortable for both parties. A public but quiet would be a best choice so opponents would not show their temper and emotion easily. 4. Past interaction You would be able to handle the negotiation process better if you have experience of negotiating with the opponents. But bear in mind your opponents also familiar with your personality well.

So well prepare for the negotiation is necessary and more effort is required comparing to negotiating with strangers. 2.8 Negotiation Techniques 1. Study your opponent It is the initial step in the negotiation process. You would not manage the negotiation process effectively without studying your opponent about their interest and needs. (http://www.franz.org/bc05.htm) 2. State your need To understand the other party is not enough. It is also important to let them know what you need. 3. Understand each others There is a story about two sisters fighting over for the only orange in the family larder.

Each sister must have the entire orange for herself. After the parents ask why they need that orange and they discover one sister wants to drink the juice and the other wants to cook a pudding. This story reminds us perfect solutions come sometimes without putting effort but try to understand each other. (http://pertinent.com/pertinfo/business/stevecohen .html) 4. Prepare options beforehand It is essential to prepare some options and back up alternatives if your preferred solution is not acceptable. (http://members.nbci.com/ XMCM/cooperate/neg.htm) 5.

Know your BATNA Consider your BATNA (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement). Your BATNA is the situation you want to improve by negotiating with a given party or set of parties. To have a clearer big negotiation picture, it is advisable to study the BATNAs of every possible party involved in the negotiation. (http://pertinent.com/pertinfo/business/stevecohen .html) 6. Use an Objective standard if possible It is advisable to set the objective standard to avoid the final decisions made are based on emotions or pressure rather than principles and results. (http://www.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/interper/negot3 .htm) 7. Separate people from the problem It is critical to address problems, not personalities and avoid the tendency to attack your opponent personality.

Make sure you send signals that you know the conflict is about the issues at hand and not personal. This will help to prevent the other side from getting defensive. (http://www.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/interper/negot3 .htm) 8. Pay attention to the flow of negotiation Negotiation is a process, which include of a sequence of events. Negotiators should pay attention to the flow of the negotiation so suitable action can be taken towards problems. (http://www.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/interper/negot3 .htm) 9. Good Guy/Bad Guy Strategy One solution if your opponent uses this strategy to listen to what the bad guy says, but do not ever try to argue back.

Prepared yourself to walk away if necessary. Negotiate with the good guy instead and to use him to negotiate with the bad guy for you. (http://www.franz.org/bc05.htm) 10. Consider timing Negotiators should avoid to negotiate when a high degree of anger on either side, or a high level of stress and tiredness on one side or the other. (http://members.nbci.com/ XMCM/cooperate/neg.htm) 11. Assume everyone else is smarter than you are This technique is to prevent you from getting the idea you can outsmart other people, then you stop paying attention to them and you will fail to concern about the opponents needs. (http://www.findarticles.com/cf 1/m1471/n3 v20/20350497/print.jhtml) 12.

Silence is golden Keeping quiet can shut the aggressive and demanding opponents mouth up and cool down and to make them start to listen your ideas and opinions. (http://pertinent.com/pertinfo/business/stevecohen .html) 12. Three Ds Do not believe everything you see and hear but to explore and try to understand it by yourself. Do not be angry when the other opponents being aggressive and unreasonable, which will not benefits the negotiation process. Do not offer your bottom line too early in the negotiation process so you will have a higher chance to get more than your bottom line. (http://pertinent.com/pertinfo/business/mikeschact zkiN1.html) 13. Others Opponents will be more comfortable if you can present yourself to be fair and consider their needs.

Be patient and active listening are also the key rules, so opponents will be conscious of your needs. Effective communication requires both parties to put consideration to each other. (http://pertinent.com/pertinfo/business/stevecohen N2.html) 3.0 RECOMMENDATIONS There is not one pre-packaged set of principles and applying them to all situations. To negotiate well, you must be prepared to use a variety of approaches. Experience is the best teacher and effective negotiation requires practice. To increase you negotiation skills, you need to increase your awareness of what you are doing. Always try to look for areas of agreement that can benefits both sides instead of being selfish to concern your own self.

Satisfying each partys main interests is the fundamental to successful negotiation. Negotiators should learn to enjoy the process of negotiation. Negotiation is not a disaster but it can bring in benefits to you, your team, your department and your organization. With you skill increases and experiences more effective negotiation, you will discover that negotiating can be fun. (http://www.bbraham.com/html/negotiation.html) 4.0 CONCLUSIONS Negotiation requires a high level of skills because it is not only rely on a persons performance but also how he/she handles the process with the opponents. To manage a negotiation process effectively, one golden rule is to be silent. Silent can give you time to think about your needs, to consider about your opponents and to construct a proper tone of sentence to explain your view.

Also, a good negotiator requires to make use of their resources such as helping your colleagues and staff to negotiate better will save time, reduce stress, and increase productivity. Negotiation is all about learning and understanding, which there is no one best issue or way for negotiators to learn but from experience and other successful past examples. Therefore, personality is an important issue of negotiation, so always try to understand yourself first before adopting any strategy on your opponents. Happy negotiating! Computers and Internet.